What Brexit will really mean for the UK?

Come June and Britons will decide if they would want to remain a member of the European Union or would Britain exit the bloc of twenty eight countries. There are many who are ringing the alarm bells citing catastrophic outcomes if Britain exits the European Union. There are many who are rather subdued and more rational with their assessments. A staggeringly rising section of the populace is in strong favour of Brexit which is weakening the case for those who oppose Brexit. Without opinionating on Brexit that would clearly be influenced by personal choices and perceptions, here are some factual and real possibilities of what might happen after the referendum.

  • Brexit will disrupt continuity to an extent. Most markets that depend on their exports to Britain or imports from Britain will have new trade agreements which will be pretty much in line with what they have right now. However, some countries that are relatively isolated or less depended on Britain may have new rules which may not favor Britain. For instance, a cheap international courier based in Britain may not get the same leverage or leeway after the country exits the EU. International couriers may charge more to send parcel to Germany at if additional costs are imposed by the European Union for imports from outside of the European Union.
  • Brexit will change the economy of Britain. It will stop spending billions of pounds that goes to fund a part of the budget of the European Union. This will be a huge saving for Britain and many people are citing this as a good enough reason to exit the EU. On the flipside is the argument that Britain will suffer economically if major businesses move their headquarters out of the country should they have stunted access to other EU markets. Right now, EU is one large consumer market and every major industry targets the entire EU consumer base instead of just one country. With same laws, it is easier for many companies in various industries to operate. If such an access gets negated or done away with, then certain industries may favor a Germany or a France, a more amenable and affordable country among the EU members.
  • The pound will be affected and it could appreciate or depreciate depending on the economic health of Britain. But the most important reason why most are considering Brexit is tougher immigration policies, sealed borders and better security. EU compels its members to have a favorable policy for migrants and immigrants. Open or porous borders are also a huge concern.

Business leaders should re-think how they treat team members

New findings from an international team of researchers suggest business leaders who oversee teams need to find a middle ground in how they treat team members — or risk hurting team performance. Specifically, the researchers found that treating some team members much better than others can adversely affect performance — as can treating all team members the same way.htsykutk

“Existing research has generally shown that leaders treating team members differently, depending on factors such as how competent they believe each member is, can result in productive teams,” says Bradley Kirkman, co-author of a paper on the work, General Hugh Shelton Distinguished Professor of Leadership and head of the Department of Management, Innovation and Entrepreneurship in North Carolina State University’s Poole College of Management. “In fact, previous research points to a linear relationship between treating team members differently and team performance. But we didn’t find that to be true.

“Instead, we found that leaders can go too far. If a leader treats team members too differently from each other, performance suffers,” Kirkman says. “The relationship between ‘differentiation’ and team performance is more of a bell curve than a straight line.”

The work was done by researchers from NC State, the University of Science and Technology in Beijing, Peking University and the University of Iowa.

For the study, the researchers evaluated differential treatment by team leaders of 145 teams in three Chinese companies: a pharmaceutical company, a telecommunications company and a manufacturing company. Team performance was assessed via a survey of the team leaders, focusing on issues such as the quality and efficiency of each team’s work and the team’s ability to meet deadlines and stay on budget.

The differential treatment was measured using the “LMX7” scale, which assesses the relationship quality between team leaders and team members. The focus of the LMX7 scale is on issues such as working relationships, rather than tangible rewards such as salaries.

“We found an upper limit to how far leaders should go in treating their team members differently,” Kirkman says. “If leaders go too far with this behavior, leaders will end up with teams composed of basically two subgroups — the ingroup and the outgroup. And we know that the outgroup will not be happy about this and will start to slack off, withdraw from participating, and even go so far as to be disruptive to the ingroup team members. But treating all team members the same also hurts performance. Leaders need to find a middle ground, or moderate level of differentiation.

“In practice, leaders should not treat all members the same — there needs to be some differentiation based on competence and ability — but they also need to avoid engaging in extreme preferential treatment,” Kirkman says.

The researchers also found two factors that influenced how much differential treatment a team could withstand before adversely affecting performance. First, larger teams — such as those with 10 or more members — could withstand more differentiation.

“This is because larger teams have greater needs for coordination and integration and putting more resources towards more capable members actually helps these processes get accomplished,” Kirkman says.

The second factor is the “power distance orientation” of the team. Power distance orientation is an evaluation of how accepting a given culture is of power differences between individuals and the social importance of hierarchy.

“A team whose members are in higher power distance countries, such as India, will likely react less negatively to differential treatment than a team in a lower power distance country, such as Australia or Israel,” Kirkman says. “Teams in lower power distance countries may simply reject this sort of differential treatment.”

The paper, “Understanding the Curvilinear Relationships between LMX Differentiation and Team Coordination and Performance,” is published online in the journal Personnel Psychology. Lead author of the paper is Yang Sui, of the University of Science and Technology. The paper was co-authored by Kirkman, Hui Wang of Peking University and Ning Li of the University of Iowa. The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

Business should embrace ‘boomerang employees’

The return of LeBron James to the Cleveland Cavaliers may have riveted the sports world and social media, but the phenomenon of “going home,” whether to a geographic location or a former job, is not unique to professional athletes.

According to two studies co-written by a University of Illinois expert in organizational behavior and human resources management, organizations of all types are beginning to recognize and embrace the value of recruiting and welcoming back former employees.

From infantry soldiers to chief executives, accountants and professional basketball players, many organizations proactively recruit and rehire former employees as a way to offset high turnover costs and hedge against the uncertain process of socializing replacement employees.

Ideally, these so-called “boomerang employees” already understand the key components of the organization’s work structure and culture, which makes them less risky hires than newcomers, says T. Brad Harris, a professor of labor and employment relations at Illinois.

“In addition to understanding the organizational culture, returning employees might also be more committed to the focal organization upon their return because, in essence, they’ve learned firsthand that the grass isn’t always greener on the other side,” Harris said.

In a paper published in the summer issue of Personnel Psychology, Harris and his co-authors — Stacie Furst-Holloway of the University of Cincinnati, Benson Rosen of the University of North Carolina, and Abbie J. Shipp of Texas Christian University — found that the experiences encountered by boomerang employees were distinct in a number of ways.

“After surveying and interviewing hundreds of employees, we were able to see that boomerang employees were more likely to originally leave an organization not because of dissatisfaction with the job, but because of some personal shock, such as a pregnancy, spousal relocation or an unexpected job offer,” Harris said. “Somewhat unexpectedly, we also found that boomerang employees, compared to non-boomerang employees, typically had shorter original tenures with the focal organizations.”

Although Harris and his colleagues’ initial research was one of the first studies to unravel the processes and experiences shared by boomerang employees, it didn’t determine how differences across boomerang employee experience affect their re-employment performance.

In a recent working paper, however, Harris and another set of co-researchers studied that issue by using a sample of boomerang employees in the National Basketball Association.

The research found that re-employment performance was significantly predicted by the harmony of the original tenure, and their success during the time spent away from the focal organization and conditions of the return.

“Our latest research suggests that organizations should realize that not all boomerangs are created equal,” Harris said. “When evaluating potential boomerang hires, organizations should first, and most obviously, consider their previous performance histories at the focal organization and at their most recent employer.

“Second, organizations should be mindful that employees who originally left on good terms and of their own volition might be better suited for a return than those who left more acrimoniously. And finally, employees who are not gone for very long might possess more of the desirable attributes of boomerang employees, such as accurately recalling the organizational culture and understanding the social norms expected in it.”

Harris and his co-authors would not commit to specific predictions about James’ return to Cleveland, noting that their statistical findings would be best applied to large groups rather than individual cases. However, one of the study’s co-authors, Brian Swider of Georgia Tech’s Scheller College of Business, said James’ performance has always been exceptional, “which fits with our ‘past performance predicts future performance’ arguments.”

“Although LeBron’s original decision to voluntarily leave Cleveland was much derided, the fact that it was clearly of his own volition might work to Cleveland’s favor,” Swider said. “But our model doesn’t exactly account for the extreme vitriol displayed by Cleveland fans or even the owner, which makes this case particularly interesting. Although many Heat fans probably wish LeBron’s tenure in Miami was longer, the brevity of his stay on South Beach should have Cavalier fans smiling.”

The working paper, tentatively titled “Employees on the Rebound: Toward a Framework for Boomerang Employee Performance,” was co-written by Richard Gardner of Brigham Young University and Joseph Liu of the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Tips for Becoming a Successful Business Owner

According to Bloomberg, 8 out of 10 businesses fail in the first 18 months of operation. You can be a successful business owner and be in operation well past that nerve-wracking 18-month mark, but you’ll have to do some hard work to get there. Besides having stellar Google local business reviews and a set of excited clientele, you need a few other things to make that happen. Here are some helpful hints to get your venture on the road to success.stykyuil

Start with Plenty of Working Capital

This is a big problem for businesses that borrow money from friends, credit unions, and even the SBA. These entities expect to be paid back, and the bad news is that you will be paying them out of the profits-unless you have significant savings. With a full savings account, you make those payments without dipping too deeply into the profits. According to the SBA, it can take up to two years to see a profit in a new business. That means you’ll need an income outside of the new business right from the get-go. Some owners even get home equity loans or use credit cards to fund the business. According to some small business gurus, it is better to save for a while and live on your savings during the first year. That way, if the business isn’t profitable, you have a plan B.

Think Small to Get Big

Thinking small seems counter-intuitive when it comes to small business, doesn’t it? It’s an important lesson to remember. Never rent properties that you can’t afford and don’t hire employees unless you are ready to pay them. Don’t promise too much in the beginning. Think about starting a business in your extra room, the garage, or even in a closet. It’s always good to make rookie mistakes in a “small” way. Start small!

Protect Your Business Image

When word gets out that you have a solid business, not everyone is going to like you. As a matter of fact, some folks will even leave negative Google local business reviews just to bring down the competition. Don’t run from the bad press; take it as an opportunity to answer your critics in a public forum. Be courteous and professional -the world is watching!

Keeping these important points in mind will help you stay on track with your goals and help to ensure a successful business that will grow and prosper. Have a plan and follow through with these helpful ideas to get your business going strong from the beginning.

Promoting and Advertising Your Business

You should also make sure to get the word out however possible. From social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) to traditional marketing such as ads in the paper and commercials, getting the word out about your business is key. One of the most underrated ways of marketing yourself, however, is through online reviews. Online reviews are the cheapest and most effective way to get attention of prospective customers.

How do you improve the Rural Areas in an African Country?

How do you improve the Rural Areas in an African CountryThere are quite a few things that have to be taken into thorough consideration when it comes down to the rural areas in the various African countries. Right off the bat, you should be aware that these are often places which are lacking in basic communications that people in the developed countries take for granted. For instance, electricity is without a doubt scarce if there is any at all. People still gather water from ponds and lakes nearby and then purify them through fire. There are tribes in the rural areas in some African countries which are still hunting animals in order to get food on the table. With this in mind, the most obvious approach would be to start from the bare beginning

Making Energy Accessible

Right off the bat, the first thing that could significantly improve the quality of life in rural areas in a wide range of different African countries is to provide them with access to energy sources. There are tons of different solutions that are available right now, and they are capable of delivering enough electricity. Solar panels, for instance, are definitely one of the green ways to go even though it’s unthinkable to get communications to the areas themselves. Furthermore, constructing water recycling establishments is definitely going to enhance the way the people live in those areas mainly because it’s going to provide them with clean and fresh water to drink – something that no one in the developed countries has even thought about.

Introducing Education

Now, the word introducing is used deliberately. While there are a lot of educational initiatives that have gone worldwide, the truth is that the majority of the villages which are scattered around rural areas in a wide range of different African countries have never heard of a teacher. They live off their traditions which most certainly do not fit in the modern person’s criteria for personal development. Furthermore, proper education is going to enable them to understand the nature of the changes that have to be made. This is something that could open those people’s minds to new horizons and make them want to facilitate the entire process.

It’s a worldly known fact that the majority of the people in these places are used for their labour and nothing else. In any case, integrating modern world approaches and solutions in these areas might be the key to it all. However, the thing is that this has to be done gradually in order to present it to the natives instead of imposing it on them. Furthermore, you need to be well aware of the fact that these are changes which are going to have substantial long-term effect, and this has to be done subtly. Furthermore, the benefits of the integration and the improvement of the rural areas in the majority of the African countries is without a doubt going to have a significant impact on the overall development of said countries. This article was brought to you by the men and woman from www.fsdt.or.tz . FSDT is a Tanzanian based Financial services company which assist farmers financially in rural areas.

Is Gap Warranty Available Outside the UK?

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We’ll give you a straight answer to this question: yes, it is! The gap warranty is universal type of insurance, which means it can be obtained both in the UK and abroad. On the other hand, you have to understand it is not the obligatory type of insurance, which means that you must decide whether you need it or not. It is some kind of additional protective plan that can save you a lot of trouble if you have it.  So, you don’t have to worry that this insurance is restricted only to the UK citizens. Of course, it all depends on the national policies, but in the most world’s countries, this vehicle security plan is a part of the insurance offer.

After we have discussed this issue, we have to go one level deeper and see what gap warranty actually is.

In short, we can say it is one of strategies we can us to secure ourselves in the case of the car theft or accident. This means that with this protection plan you can bridge a gap between the actual value of your car and the amount of money you owe for your vehicle. Of course, it doesn’t mean that everyone will need it and that we all have to purchase it right after we buy our car.

Most of the time, universal or standard insurance plan will be sufficient for the majority of drivers. But, not in all situations. If you, for example, total your car and the actual value of your vehicle is lower than the amount of money you owe to the bank or leasing company, then you will be in the middle of the gap. The easiest way to resolve this situation and get replacement car is to buy the gap insurance. As its name suggests, it is designed to overcome this financial gap and help people in critical situations like theft and total car crashes.

Understanding Gap insurance

There is one thing you have to be aware of here. Your vehicle will lose its value over the time. It can go up to 40% after one year, depending on the vehicle model and the situation on the market. This means that you will have to compensate 40% of the car value in the case that you totally ruin your car in the accident. Even the best insurance policy cannot help you here, because they usually cover only the actual price of the car. In other words, you will be in a big problem.

On the other hand, the gap warranty will help you to get replacement car quickly and without any administrative complications, even if your vehicle has lost a lot of its initial value. This is why people say this protective should be considered as the investment in the future.

Once again, this protective plan is not limited to one specific country or region and it can be purchased almost in every country with developed insurance policy. Just ask your insurance agent or even car dealer, and they will explain you all required details.

Pallet Deliveries for Your Business

Running a business in manufacturing and supply chains means you are constantly packing and shipping goods in large quantities. This task can be made easier with the use of pallets. With a pallet you can deliver large amounts of your product while remaining eco-friendly.

Rather than unloading each box individually, stacking them on pallets can simplify and speed up the loading and unloading process. You want your business to run as smoothly and efficiently as possible, and using wooden pallets for pallet deliveries can do just that. Stack as much as you can on a pallet and use shrink wrap to keep it in one place and then use a pallet jack for easy and almost effortless movement.

Using pallets reduces labour requirements and the risk of temperature problems for perishable products on unrefrigerated docks. Pallets also require less handling and you can therefore expect less damage to goods and products along with reducing the risk of worker injury. Don’t have your workers move items parcel by parcel. Filling a wooden pallet is easier and more efficient.

If your business is food stuffs and fresh produce, pallets provide drainage and air circulation for keeping foods fresh. Depending on the foods you are shipping, you will need to provide dry ice and/or gel packs to keep products cool and from spoiling. Secure everything firmly on a pallet to avoid spills and other damage.

Pallets are also great for air circulation. If you have a pallet that is full of produce or other perishables wooden pallets will allow air to circulate through to keep items fresh. This will extend the life of food stuffs and other items and guarantee safe delivery.

Another benefit to using wooden pallets for your business is that they are 100% recyclable. They can be turned into new pallets and be repaired to extend their life. Once used for deliveries, they can then be turned into furniture or other DIY projects for your home or office. Other types of pallets such as plastic pallets, are not made from sustainable resources and therefore are not so environmentally friendly.

If your business makes and/or receives large deliveries, wooden pallets are the way to go. There is no doubt that a business such as manufacturing leaves an impact on the environment, but using wooden pallets gives you the opportunity to go green. Wooden pallets will simplify tasks and keep products intact and food fresh.

Did You Get the Memo? And Other Things Online Collaborators No Longer Say

Let’s set the clock back to 15:54,Friday 11th May,2012.

Charlie is a project manager at a midsize firm.

A project’s deadline has already been pushed back twice and Charlie’s clients want a meeting to discuss the implications. It’s not a meeting he’s much looking forward to, but it has to be had. Terry’s misplaced the reminder and as a consequence, no arrangements have been made.It’s Friday, the week is almost out. Jan and John are in disagreement about how to move forward on a subproject. Where did VeryImportantClient Inc.’s number get placed? The number from their site rings ad infinitum. Tod is out sick, what a nightmare.

If only Charlie and his team were using collaboration software he wouldn’t be having that meeting, resolving internal conflicts and misplacing numbers.

CHARLIE

Hello? Who’s that speaking? What’s collaboration software?

Software that connects people in order to work collaboratively has been around since the late 1970s, but it wasn’t until the integration of the cloud that effective online collaboration found its way into the office space.

When the cloud was introduced it was a kind of nifty storage feature. You could keep valuable documents somewhere other than on your computer or in an email folder. Programs like Dropbox made file storage easier and provided a virtual hard drive accessible to any user with access to the account password.

And yet, back in 2012, barely four years ago, not many offices were using collaboration tools. That was, until project software developers like Glasscubes also provided an app for IOS and android, making project tools like chat available on the go.

Bringing the discussion back to Charlie, imagine he’s been called to a business meeting abroad. 2012 would be looking at a suitcase jam packed with messy file folders and miscellaneous notes outlining talking points. Modern Charlie works paperless. In fact, he’s already spoken to the overseas clients to inform them of his talking points.

New Charlie has saved the company paper, printers, travel, recourses and man power. And most importantly, VeryImportantClientInc know exactly where they stand.

Fear over the implementation of new tech, new solutions, new training? All these are common barriers to instigating a contemporary, cloud-based way of doing things for the better. But, in fact, online collaboration and cloud-based services are now so intuitive to use that they actually require literally no training, and since it’s all on a remote server, all you need is a web browser to get going.

So break down those barriers already, and join the cloud – online collaboration and project management tools are huge cost-savers and get companies working as efficiently as their smartest competitors.

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Did You Get the Memo? And Other Things Online Collaborators No Longer Say

Meta title:

Did You Get the Memo? Things Collaborators No Longer Say

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Project Software has been around since the 1970s. It wasn’t until the integration of the cloud that online collaboration found its way into the office space.

5 Apps for Tracking Business Expenses

There are many things to keep up with when it comes to finances and running your own business. And at times, keeping track of your expenses can seem like a waste of time. But tracking expenses is essential for many reasons.

Keeping an eye on your business such as, revenue, profitability, cash, expenses and debt, will allow you to stay on top of your business. You will always need documentation of your expenses for tax purposes and luckily with smartphone apps, you can keep up with everything you need.

Expense apps or receipt management apps are an easy and efficient way to keep on top of all the gruelling receipts and paperwork. Here is a list of expense apps for you to use while building a successful business.

  1. ExpenseIn is an expense management app that allows you to snap photos of receipts and safely store them in the cloud. It’s a great app for businesses of all sizes. This app is easy to install and easy to use. Get rid of the paper and keep all of your receipts in one place. Create policies, add users and use this app for efficient reporting.
  1. Expensify is an app available for the iPhone. It enables you to keep track of business expenses, mileage and billable time. Capture the receipt and create expense reports on the spot. Sync with your credit card so that expenses are automatically pulled, making it easier on you.
  1. Mileage Log+ is another iPhone app where you can get accurate and timely mileage logs from employees. Reimburse them easily with this app. It’s strictly for gas mileage but it’s extremely useful for those who travel for work.
  1. Shoeboxedis used for capturing receipts and reimbursement. It’s available for iPhone and Android. Even small purchases can add up and you’d be amazed at how much you’re missing when it isn’t accounted for.
  1. BizXpenseTrackeris an all-inclusive app that allows you to track mileage, expenses and time. It will great organised PDF reports and gives you the freedom to customise categories and other features to suit your needs.

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5 Apps for Tracking Business Expenses

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5 Apps for Tracking Business Expenses | Accounting

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Expense apps are an efficient way to keep on top of all the receipts and paperwork. Here is a list of expense apps for you to use to manage money wisely.

 

London – A great destination for your family vacation

Normally when people hear the name London they immediately think of Fish and chips and Big Ben. However, London is one of the best european family destinations to have your family vacation. Here are some of our favorite destinations that you and your family could potentially go to.

Big Ben.

This iconic clock tower is one of the biggest tourist attractions in London. Opened in 1859 this tower stands at an outstanding 316 feet tall. A guided tour will take you up the 334 stone spiral steps to the top of the tower to hear Big Ben strike the hour. Once you’re up you’re able to see a beautiful view and you will also have the opportunity to tour the mechanism room to see how a clock works in the 21st century.

London Eye

The London eye is one of the most iconic carousels in the world! Standing at a staggering 443 feet high this carousel over looks the beautiful Thames river! One of the tallest buildings in the city, the London eye can hold up to 800 people. It was built 7 years ago and still remains as one of the biggest and finest attractions today.

Tower of London

The tower was originally her majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress, it’s a historic castle located on the Thames River. The castle is now used for tours where you can see the crown jewels and the infamous White tower! You can also stop by the Luna Cinema where countless of plays are being held, or if you would like to take a more entertaining tour we suggest you go with the Beefeaters tour. The Beefeaters will tour and entertain you with tales of intrigue, imprisonment and executions making you feel as if you were in the past. The tower of London is one of the most family-friendly tours in London.

For more information about custom European Travel visit DestinationEuropeOnline.com

4 Things Companies get wrong when hiring Content Marketers

Content Marketing is gaining priority in marketing budgets of all companies. But, sometimes due to lack of an integrated approach, it might not be able to yield you desirable results. Successful Content Marketing requires a great deal of planning, time for creation and execution and last but not the least, a consistent effort to keep the customers engaged. Contentmart.com bring to you some common errors which if avoided can make your Content Marketing strategy more impactful giving you desired results.

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  • Not sharing and promoting the Content that is developed

Producing quality content is the initial step in the process. The next most important is promoting it well on relevant media so that you get influencers who spread your word. We often engage most of our Content writers, freelancers and agencies in crafting the content and forget this second bit. It’s like putting great ingredients in a Cake but forgetting the Icing.

  • Focusing more on Quantity than Quality

Most of the times due to loads of stuff for Marketing, our focus is on generating content and in this race we lose the focus on Quality. So you must analyze and look at minimum content that your website needs to bring you the best results without affecting quality. Customers will value Quality more than Quantity. Being consistent and relevant is what helps you succeed.

  • Not providing a solution to the customer’s problem

You must address the stated and the unstated needs of your customers rather than just promoting your products. Whatever Content you develop should showcase a problem solving approach. It must focus on the process how the problem rather than the end result or our product.

  • Not sharing Personal success stories and Interacting on Social Media

Personal Success stories are much more impactful than the biggest media advertisements. Experiential Marketing is the prime driver of Content writing. Prospective customers relate best with the success stories of happy customers. In current scenario of digital world, people look for social approvals more than anything else to follow a brand.

 

In addition to this, it is important for you to reply to customer comments on social media. Posting Content on Social Media platforms is important but at the same time you must take care of positive and negative comments posted by customers. Taking time out for this task is very important to help social media carve out a positive image for your brand.

 

All the above if avoided will prevent your Content marketing strategy falling in pitfalls.

 

Today is not the time for panic, or how to protect themselves from the crisis

Despite the fact that it is in the US and Europe there are economic problems, suffering, strangely enough, we Russians with their national currency, not having sufficient airbag. The paradox or pattern?

For too long, we were happy to high oil prices is too long enjoyed suddenly fell down on us like miracle, and were happy and spent, not trying to refocus the economy on the production of goods, rather than resource extraction. Whatever happens in the US economy, it continues to be the largest in the world.

Thus, it is not difficult to predict that with the strengthening of the global economic crisis will strengthen the dollar and the strengthening of the dollar will fall in oil prices. And if the fall in oil prices, the ruble will fall, too. Therefore, we must constantly be aware of the events and read the economic news and forex economic calendar.

Just think, if you knew about the growth of up to 90 rubles and 78 rubles to the dollar, it certainly would have prepared in advance of the Euro-dollar savings. And it can know if a little more time devoted to liquidate their economic illiteracy, if attempted to analyze the current global trends and a series circuit. But the sense of regret now, when everything has already happened? We must try to do the right conclusions and to think, how to dispose of its assets (even very small).

If you are confident in their forecasts, you can try to capitalize on the growth of foreign currency. Of course, it is risky, and with the banking margin also ungrateful. Therefore it is better to trade using a Forex broker. Their forecasts on major currency pairs you can always compare with the forex analysis forecast. If you want to save, not to make money, make sure that your savings are relatively large have not lost their value in the long term, it is necessary to use a “basket of currencies”. It has long been a well-known method: one-third of the euro, one third of the dollar and a third in rubles. But once again – this is not the way to make money, but a way to save.

If your savings are not “relatively” high, it is best to invest in real estate. It is almost always grows at the rate of inflation, and often exceeding the growth rate of the consumer price index. And yet – constantly follow world events, read articles on economic topics, analyze the dynamics of the currency (and pay attention not only to clear and close to the heart of the euro / ruble and dollar / ruble). Now there are plenty of opportunities in the short term to get the amount needed for the proper management of their knowledge resources.

 

Infrastructure Debt – Awesome Opportunity or a Cold Duck?

It is a fact that investors of all genres are now piling up to infrastructure debt, which is creating hype in this sector, but also causing a dilemma with low public awareness. While some deem it as an awesome opportunity, others still think it is a cold duck. Let’s explore further.

infrastructure_DebtInfrastructure debt

Infrastructure debt is a new-age avenue, which had quickly established over the last few years on its own to come on top of the asset allocator’s must have list. This in turn left the investment managers in infrastructure sector with huge capital. On the other hand, it had also created a confusing issue to them as to finding adequate projects to invest in by meeting all acceptable terms.

Taking leverage of the hype of infrastructure debt funds, pension funds also went behind this new avenue. Pension funds were struggling for long to identify a real substitute to tackle its low fixed-income issue, where infrastructure debt came up timely by offering a coupon income.

Infrastructure debts now offer solid long-term cash flow, which matches substantially with the fixed long-term liabilities. Moreover, infrastructure debt is highly illiquid so the rates are naturally higher than conventional fixed-income type securities. It also has many other add-on benefits over pension funds. The low bond yields now cause the duration of pension liabilities to increase, which adds to the attractiveness of infrastructure debt.

It’s a matured market

Contrary to common belief, with more than four years of proliferation, infrastructure debt is now a highly matured market with expert fund managers practising proven strategies based on scale, credit seniority, global scope, and the general financial characteristics as inflation protection.

Moreover, deal structuring and credit analysis too rapidly gets sophisticated and the margins are pressured by the huge influx of capital into infrastructure from other funds. As discussed above, the constraint for most of the infrastructure debt managers now is the availability of adequate projects, which can deliver the desired yield.

Not a cold duck of course

It is a reassuring fact while thinking of infrastructure debt that there is significant increase in the capital inflows lately from sectors like pension funds and insurance etc. These are in high need for potential de-risking, where infrastructure debt acts as a perfect sweet spot. Looking further, with the increasing need for infrastructure capital in the UK, and the investors plan to pump in additional €315bn into the European infrastructure over the next three years create a highly welcoming scenario.

Investors’ catch

 

Securing a more reliable income and achieving diversification are the top priority of the institutional investors, which are tied up innately with infrastructure debt. While 56% of the investors find diversification as their major interest in investing in infrastructure asset class, about 54% also find reliable income as their best catch.

In this matured market, the capability of the expert infrastructure debt managers to gather consistent long-term cash flows from all sources into a highly reliable income stream is the most powerful draw for investors planning for infrastructure debts. It tempts the new-age investors to look so keenly at the relative value of this investment vehicle over other corporate bonds.

Importance of GAP Insurance

You must be aware of GAP insurance and its significance when you put your car on lease. But there are certain facts which are required to be kept in mind before opting for GAP insurance. You must be wondering whether GAP insurance is mandatory to be opted when applying for a car loan. Here are certain facts that can clarify all your queries.

What is it?

GAP is an acronym of “Guaranteed Auto Protection”. This insurance holds a lot of significance while you lease your car and especially when you don’t put down a large down payment. Guaranteed Auto Protection would provide you the insurance value which is equivalent to the current market value of the car at the time of accident. This is an extra layer of security that you opt for over and above your normal car insurance.

Guaranteed Auto protection has become almost like an unwritten rule when you are planning to lease your car. However, if you are willing to pay only a small down payment initially at the time of purchasing the car, then also a GAP policy should be wisely opted for. This is because the car depreciation many a times outpaces the premiums that you pay for the car loan. For example, when you purchase a car for $30000 and put a very small down payment, the car may depreciate 20% and its value would be $24000 a year later. In such a case, the money that you owe is more than the depreciated value of the car. If an accident occurs under such circumstances, GAP insurance becomes an object of great importance.

The GAP insurance is included in almost all the car lease contracts for increased safety purposes. It has been noticed that the consumers show a lot of negligence towards GAP insurance at the time of purchasing the car even if they had paid an insignificantly small down payment. There have been a lot of efforts and campaigns being conducted by the experts in order to bring the desired awareness regarding GAP insurance among the car owners.

Leasing companies

Leasing companies now require GAP insurance and this is usually inculcated in the contract. If your lease requires a GAP policy but somehow it has not been included in your contract, then it would be wise to shop around for a perfect GAP coverage and select the best one available. If your car lease comes with GAP coverage, then it should be kept in mind that you should check all the details attached with it to ensure that you have the best GAP coverage in the market.

Conclusion

When you are considering purchasing GAP insurance for your financed car purchase then the coverage and also the size of down payment are to be taken into consideration. This is being suggested by the expert that if you are purchasing a car with less than 20% down payment, then you should seriously opt for a GAP insurance without any second thought.

How Much Does My Premium Go Up When I Am In A Car Accident?

car warrantyOne of the scariest things that can happen to a person is being involved in a car accident. To make matters worse there is often a lot of work involved that goes with it including filing a police report and contacting your insurance agency. Unfortunately, if you’ve been in accident or in multiple accidents you’ll find that the prices of your premium will go up, but how do you know just how much exactly?

Well, we’ve compromised an article to help you determine what you should expect to happen when you’ve been in an accident. What many people don’t get is that when it comes to insurance rates, each company has to file a special report that includes what they charge in the event someone is an accident and just how much your rates will rise depending on your history.

Insurance company will give you a quote

Often times, if requested the insurance firm you’re seeking to do business with has to give you a quote or the report that they’ve filed with the state when asked. This can help you determine what company can cover the coverage needs you have with your vehicle as well as who would be cheapest to do business with in the event you’re in an accident.

While each company may come equipped with their own fees and prices, for the most part you can expect to pay around the twenty to forty percent increase rate in the event that you find yourself in a car accident.

Your drivers history

Again, most of this will depend on your driving history as in how many accidents you’ve been in and how close together. Obviously, those who’ve been in more frequent accidents will see higher rates with just about any company they choose to go with. Likewise, many companies have hidden surcharges that aren’t typically and not required to be revealed until it’s too late and you’re filing an insurance claim. Insurance claims are a way for an insurance company to help pay for the damage done to your vehicle as well as that of the other person or people involved. Hence, when you’re in multiple accidents you’ll see a spike in your insurance policies.

More so, for those who own multiple vehicles, you’ll be expected to pay higher premiums regardless when you purchase insurance as you’ll be covering both vehicles. Drivers who’re considered a high liability will typically pay more as well as they’re more likely to find themselves in to vehicular accidents more than once.

Conclusion

For some who’ve been in an accident for various purposes, you can also expect that some insurance companies may refuse to do business with you because of being a high risk. It’s often left up to the discretion of the owner of the insurance firm you’re going with, to determine if you’re worth the flight risk or if they’ll refuse to do business with you due to the fact that you’re a high risk insurer which makes them pay out more.

The Four Main Reasons to Switch to Electronic Document Storage

As time goes on, the reality and possibility of completely paperless offices are continuing to get closer. The advantages electronic document storage offers are vast, and businesses everywhere are beginning to make the transition.

If you have yet to decide whether electronic document storage is a good fit for you, here is a look at some of the main reasons you should make the switch.

Reduces the Need for Storage

One of the biggest, and most obvious, benefits of making the switch to electronic storage is the fact that it reduces the need for storage. Switching your documents over to being stored electronically means you have the option of getting rid of those filing cabinets that are taking up far too much space in your office.

This extra space allows business owners to do a variety of different things. From creating leisure areas for employees to expanding offices, having more space comes with an array of additional advantages.

Convenience

For businesses and medical practices that need to access documents fast, electronic storage provides an opportunity for finding your documents with a quick search of your computer. This is a godsend compared to the traditional method of having to manually search through a filing cabinet to find the document you require.

Another convenient aspect of electronic document storage is that as long as you have the document on file, you can access it anywhere, at any time, and on just about any device. This creates a great deal of convenience if you are in meetings or negotiations where quick access to documents can save you time.

Security

When it comes to storing your documents in the traditional way, there is always a little bit of apprehension as to who in your office could have access to them. This issue disappears when you have your documents stored electronically, as you can manually control who receives access.

In addition, it prevents the issue of potentially losing valuable documents and having them fall into the wrong hands. With encryption the way it is today, it is a much more secure option to have your documents stored in a system that requires passwords and authentication. Just be sure that you choose document scanning specialists Paper Escape, who have a reputation for setting users up in a secure way.

Cost-Effective

If you are thinking that the many advantages of storing your documents electronically would lead to high costs, you will be happy to know the opposite is true. Switching to electronic documents has the opportunity to save businesses money in several different ways.

For one, the reduced need for storage means you will not have to worry about renting out an off-site storage facility. It also means your secretaries and employees will not have to waste as much time filing paper documents, which means they can concentrate on things that are more pertinent to your success.

Home Business Advice to Keep in Mind

A home-based business can be an excellent experience. You can work in the comfort of your own home, spend less time traveling to work, and it’s just simply convenient. Although all that is true, there are a few disadvantages. It is sometimes difficult to stay focused at home as there are many interruptions that you may have to deal with.

In order to avoid the distractions of the outside world and the Internet, you should look into creating the perfect home business environment. The ideal environment is very important in order to work from home efficiently.

Below is a bit of advice on what you should do in order to improve your work environment. Of course, everyone is different, so feel free to change the tips below as you please to meet your needs. When it is all said and done, you should make certain you set up the work environment that will help you avoid distractions and lead you to good results.

Tip #1: Play Music: This is definitely your own personal preference. There are some people who require total silence in order to function, so you may disregard this tip if that sounds like you. Music, typically instrumental without lyrics, can make you work more effectively and can help block out additional sounds that most would find distracting.

Though if you listen to music and still do not work well, try complete silence. Surprisingly, an increasing number of people find that the constant sound of white noise helps them the most out of all of these options.

Tip #2: Purchase a High Quality Desk and Chair: Buying a comfortable chair and a good quality desk is extremely important if you are devoting many hours each day to working from home.

A great computer chair is one of the best purchases you can make, especially since a well-made chair is much better for the health of your back and joints. A quality desk will also help you feel like you are in a workplace environment which will help you get into the working mode.

Tip #3: Isolate Yourself from Outside Noises: If noises and people distract you, make an effort to go with a quiet part of your home to work. If your computer is in a busy room with a lot of foot traffic, then you will not be as efficient as you could be when working in a quiet area. If you can, attempt to set up your office anywhere you want that’s not busy or distracting.

Tip #4: Have Foods and Drinks By Your Desk: If you are working from home, then you know that one benefit is being able to drink and eat whenever you want. Rather than get up out of your work area to go to the kitchen, keep a few snacks and drinks by your desk in order to save time. Visiting the kitchen could also lead you to many distractions like talking with someone or cleaning.

Tip #5: Schedule Your Workload: Be sure you have a good amount of time to operate. Do not sit back and put together five blog posts if you need to do another task in ten minutes. If you would like manage your own home-based business then you need to devote many hours exactly like you would on the job, sometimes even more than average.

The tips above are extremely simple; however they have considerably affected the performance of most people who run their own business. These suggestions will help you work much faster and more efficiently, which means you will get a lot more done and make more profits.

European business is willing, but not equipped, for low carbon transition

Research from Climate-KIC reveals that most European business leaders have prepared strategies to respond to climate change, but with a lack of focus on innovation, those strategies are likely to be ineffective for a 2°C trajectory.

The study from Climate-KIC, the EU’s principal knowledge and innovation community focused on climate change is entitled, Sparking an Innovation Step Change. It analyses the readiness of C-level European business leaders to deploy radical innovation to turn climate change from a threat into an opportunity.

Most European business leaders, (63%) acknowledge the regulatory and physical risks posed by climate change. 63% also believe responding to climate change would drive growth as demand for environmentally sound products and services increases. To address the identified risk and opportunity, most businesses (59%) said they have a strategy to respond to climate change.

However, despite the positive ambitions of European business, only 3 in 10 (29%) see a large amount of scope to respond to climate change using innovative technologies and ways of working. Even less (14%) believe there is a large amount of scope to evolve their business model to reduce resource consumption and carbon emissions.

An even more concerning insight was that irrespective of climate change, over a third (35%) of respondents concluded that their market is not subject to external changes, so they do not need to incorporate any form of innovation.

Speaking from the Paris launch of the study, Bertrand van Ee, Chief Executive, Climate-KIC, said: “Innovation has played a critical role in most socioeconomic revolutions. Climate change is no exception. The science shows we need to reconfigure the economy in-line with the 2°C trajectory — and innovation must sit at the centre of the transition.

“Many businesses seem to have forgotten how to innovate, or are delaying innovation until they get a policy silver bullet. That strategy doesn’t reflect business’ understanding of the risks of climate change; or the realistic timelines to scale up radical innovations to turn the threat into an opportunity.”

Research & Development (R&D) departments are the critical business function for identifying and responding to the needs of the changing marketplace, so they were a key focus of the Climate-KIC study. Despite climate change appearing clearly on boardroom risk registers, R&D departments were found to lack the skills and resources to meet the challenges of a carbon constrained world.

· Less than 4 in 10 (38%) of R&D departments have sufficient expertise to respond to climate change

· Most firms (29%) invest between 10-20% of their budget in R&D, but nearly two-thirds (63%) only dedicate 5% or less of their R&D budget to innovation to respond to climate change

· 1 in 10 (11%) dedicate none of their budget to responding to climate change

Whilst R&D departments were the ‘least worst’ at understanding how to respond to climate change, the research also highlighted a severe lack of skills in other key business functions.

· Only 10% of accounting and finance teams, which are critical to forming corporate strategy, have climate change expertise

· 6% of Human Resources departments; i.e. those responsible for hiring personnel with skills to respond to climate change, understand it

The research also explored the barriers that have led to the addiction to incrementalism, as well as potential solutions to break that cycle. There was a clear signal to the COP21 negotiators that business needs the certainty to internalise the challenge of climate change in order to apply innovation to responding: only 3 in 10 (30%) said climate change regulation encouraged them to develop new innovation to respond to climate change.

Given the global scale of the climate challenge, the study explored the role of industry collaboration for enabling businesses to tackle common carbon-related issues.

· Two-thirds (65%) believe EU-level competition law has limited industry’s ability to collaborate and respond to climate change

· A third (33%) believe sharing costs and resources to improve efficiency and reduce emissions would enable them to respond effectively

· 32% believe sharing the results of tests and best practice related to improving efficiency and reducing emissions could enable them to respond effectively

Paul Simpson, CEO, CDP, which contributed to the Climate-KIC report, said: “Most companies, especially in the commodities space, cannot be seen to discuss or share ideas amongst themselves on carbon pricing as they could be called out for price fixing. Corporate law has been designed to prevent monopolies, but it can hold back sustainability. In my view, business needs to first collaborate to create a sustainable system — then compete.”

Climate-KIC’s experience as Europe’s largest collaboration community on climate change is that greater sharing of information can actually raise more competition, not limit it. The willingness of business to collaborate is a clear opportunity to evolve policy to encourage greater diffusion of radical innovation to address climate change.

Bertrand van Ee, Chief Executive, Climate-KIC, added: “Business has a choice, either to shape the needs and impacts of a zero carbon future, or to be shaped by it. Education is needed to equip business leaders with the knowledge and skills to shift them to a larger, “system-level” approach. Business must actively place themselves on an innovation journey; creating channels for radical innovation to flow into their operations, making them more resilient and equipped to seize first mover advantage.”

Home Business Solutions Company – Better Ways to Better Days

Home business Solutions Company is one of the famous companies of Australia providing solutions regarding website and home based businesses since 8 years. It is considered to be pioneer in this field because of the enormous and wide range of services provided by the company to its clients. It is truly Australian based company because all offices related to it located in Australia. Reputation and goodwill of the company is continuously increasing because of its accuracy and efficiency related to work. Its management includes talented, qualified, committed, dedicated, professional, and trained graphic designers, market research staff website designers, programmers, sales staff and support staff. By availing the services clients are able to start their home businesses already set up an d ready to operate. Business from home provides a sense of independence because owner is free to make his time table flexible. He can get rid of 5 to 9 job and become able to spend more time with family.

Along with wide range of services company also provides 12 months free training and support to operate websites and businesses. This helps clients to operate business after getting skilled and experienced. This opportunity increases chances to flourish business and saves family financial future. Company provides support and training for each and every aspect from ordering of product to sales of product. After period of 12 months company will provide free assistance regarding acquiring of advice and guidance from company. Risk taking is an important factor to increase your revenues. Without taking risk one will be not able to expand and flourish business. This type of business also provides a platform to test innovative business ideas for home.

During period of 12 months client can invite Home business Solutions Company administration to its home that may be located anywhere in Australia and get chance of one to one meeting. In meeting questions regarding home based jobs can be asked to get rid of confusions. Website package also includes best quality hosting support, exclusive knowledgebase, free search engine submission, training, tips regarding google analytics, chance to improve page rank, method to use back links and 300 online step by step video tutorials. Operating website is not an easy task but by following instructions given in user friendly manual one is able to operate website even if he has no earlier experience. In present days facebook become prominent source of advertisement of products. Administration of company guides the individuals in professional way how to make business page and get links.

Starting a business is a matter of adequate training

Entrepreneurship as vocation? As a talent, which reveals itself early on and is the requirement for a successful start-up? This is the prevailing — yet wrong — view. Entrepreneurship is an acquired skill. The capacity to think and act in entrepreneurial terms is present in many people — unbeknown to most of them. Action-oriented entrepreneurship training sessions can unlock dormant potential and awaken entrepreneurial spirit. This is the findings of a research team, composed of scholars from Leuphana University of Lüneburg, the University of Singapore, as well as various universities in Uganda and Tanzania under the leadership of Michael Gielnik, Professor for Human Resources and Personnel Development in Lüneburg.

For their recently published study, academics carried out a survey among around 350 Ugandan students from different professional disciplines about their attitudes on starting up a business and entrepreneurship. Half of them had previously taken part in a hands-on entrepreneurship training, which encouraged them from the outset to engage in their own entrepreneurial endeavors. The rest of the people asked constituted a control group. The interviews were conducted immediately before and after the program, as well as with a temporal distance of twelve months after completion of the training. “Our data clearly reveals the effectiveness of the training,” explains Gielnik. The short-term effects, which were observed in the training participants, were a greater confidence in their own entrepreneurial skills as well as greater readiness to start a business as compared to those of the control group. After twelve months, the participants of the course showed a significantly higher rate of readiness to start a business than their peers who had not undergone the training.”

The Entrepreneurship Training Program, which provided the substance on which the study is based, owes its conception to Lüneburg scholars, who designed it especially for developing countries. Under the name of STEP, the abbreviation of “Student Training for Entrepreneurial Promotion,” twelve-weeks’ training sessions are held at universities in various African and Asian countries. The primary aim of the training is to make participants aware of their own potential and to give them the possibilities to demonstrate their own entrepreneurial activities. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the German UNESCO Commission are subsidizing the training sessions.

The training combines practice exercises with theory-based content. The core and concept of the program are action-focused. Young adults are expected to learn entrepreneurial behavior by engaging in it themselves. The participants receive US$100 in seed capital. This money is meant to be used for the creation of their own small enterprise and to build it up as the course progresses — for example a stall selling freshly squeezed juice at their own university. Doing so, they acquire early practice and can learn from their own mistakes. Theoretical knowledge is taught in the form of “action principles”: use your own unique strengths! Analyze the market and client behavior! Take interest in your customers! These catch phrases have been developed on the basis of business management methods and theories and equip the participants with the instruments necessary to lead an enterprise.

For developing countries, the results of the study are of particular importance. Permanent positions are in short supply due to the difficult economic situation in many of these countries. Especially teenagers and young adults, who find it difficult to enter the labor market, suffer from this situation. In Uganda, for example, 60 percent of young people are unemployed. The promotion of business creation can, therefore, be an effective means of combatting poverty and bolstering economic development. However, the results obtained can also be applied to industrial countries, such as Germany. “We know from past research that action-oriented entrepreneurship training sessions also meet positive responses in economically stronger countries,” explains Gielnik. “However, the effects often make themselves felt later than in developing countries. Because of the high level of regulation, starting up a business in Europe or in the USA is a far more complicated and long-winded process than in developing countries.”

Why innovation takes a nosedive

A new UBC study reveals that corporate leaders are victims of herd mentality when adopting new innovations, sometimes with deadly consequences.

The paper, by Sauder School of Business Associate Professor Marc-David L. Seidel and INSEAD Professor Henrich R. Greve, shows leaders tend to pursue innovations, even as complex as airplanes, based on early adoption by competitors not close scrutiny of the technical merits.

“Business leaders tend to panic when new innovations are about to hit the market. They scramble to buy an apparent early leader,” says Seidel. “Sometimes this results in inferior products, but as we show in our study, in the airline industry there was loss of life.”

Among a series of innovations, the authors focused on two almost identical aircraft produced in the 1970s — the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011. Dubbed “The Twins,” their manufacturers were locked in bitter rivalry.

Component delays slowed the L-1011’s entry into the market by a year. Lack of sales characterized it as a failed innovation with only 250 sold compared to 486 DC-10s.

But the DC-10 suffered design flaws that proved deadly, killing over 600 people in a number of crashes. In 1979, it was temporarily grounded by the Federal Aviation Administration but this did not stop its advance.

In the paper, Seidel and Greve warn there is potential for history to repeat itself as Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner and its rival the Airbus A350 head to market.

Early groundings and production delays of the Dreamliner resulted in airlines snapping up more of the rival Airbus before it had completed flight testing or carried passengers.

“We can’t say the bias to purchase the Airbus will result in negative events,” says Seidel. “We won’t know if mistakes are being made for some time. But I can say the lesson of history should be guiding current practice.”

To arrive at the conclusions of the study, Seidel and Greve analysed the complete manufacturing history of both the DC-10 and L-1011 airplanes, their sales patterns, abandonments and data on airline customers.

Small business owners not always worried about being treated fairly, researcher finds

Fairness is not always the most important priority for small retailers. In an international study, University of Missouri researchers found that some small retailers are less concerned about whether they are treated fairly by business suppliers than other factors, such as cash flow and company survival.

Lisa Scheer, the Emma S. Distinguished Professor of Marketing in the MU Trulaske College of Business, notes that what retailers consider to be fair business practices differ greatly across cultures and situations.

“It is presumed that fairness, however it is defined by individual businesses, is important to all businesses,” Scheer said. “Our research challenges that presumption and reveals that the importance placed on fairness can vary greatly among retailers.”

Scheer says businesses who partner with other businesses might have contrasting ideas about what fairness means, which could challenge business relationships.

“Businesses constantly are concerned about the importance of fairness in their relations with customers,” Scheer said. “However, less emphasis is placed on views of fairness among different business partners. In some cases, one business partner may be less interested in being treated fairly and more concerned about receiving adequate cash flow or profit for the business to survive. Investing time and effort to ‘be fair’ in those situations is wasted and even counter-productive if it undermines the factors that are more important to the other business partner.”

Scheer surveyed small retailers in 10 culturally diverse countries, including the United States, to determine their views on fairness in their relationships with suppliers. They found that, although most small business owners were concerned with fairness, the degree of importance placed on fairness varied greatly.

“The data from our study show that retail managers with low tolerance for uncertainty place much greater importance on fairness than those comfortable with uncertainty, an effect which is enhanced when the managers have had greater exposure to cultures other than their home countries,” Scheer said. “It is particularly short-sighted to extrapolate one’s own perspectives about fairness when doing business with partners in other cultures and in countries at different stages of development.”

Scheer suggests that businesses should learn about one another’s stances on fairness and other competing goals and business practices.

“Retailers should not assume that the priorities of their business partners match their own,” Scheer said. “The managers may be surprised to discover that their business partners place much less importance on fairness than other factors. If business partners discuss their values and probe to determine what is most important for each party, contracts and interactions can be designed to better match each participant’s needs, thereby building more effective business relationships. Everyone can ensure that they are on the same page and know what to expect when conducting business together.”

Scheer’s research team included former MU doctoral students Donald Lund, now assistant professor at the University of Alabama-Birmingham, and Irina Kozlenkova, now assistant professor at Michigan State University. The study, “Culture’s Impact on the Importance of Fairness in Interorganizational Relationships,” was published in the Journal of International Marketing.